[abstract] FATALITIES IN DIVERS USING RE-BREATHERS.

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[abstract] FATALITIES IN DIVERS USING RE-BREATHERS.

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Title: [abstract] FATALITIES IN DIVERS USING RE-BREATHERS.
Author: Denoble, PJ; Ellis, J; Vann, RD
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The number of diving fatalities involving re-breathing diving apparatus (RDA, closed and semi-closed) is small but increasing based on data collected by DAN. We review these data below. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the DAN database for RDA fatalities during 1998-2006. Because follow-up was possible for US and Canadian cases, more information was available for these than for international cases. Cases were evaluated for triggers, harmful actions (HA), disabling events (DE) as described elsewhere at this meeting (1) and for equipment failure or procedural errors. RESULTS: Worldwide RDA deaths in DAN data increased from 6 in 1998 to 16 in 2006. There were 24 US and Canadian deaths and 54 deaths involving 24 other nationalities. US and Canadian RDA deaths increased from 1% of all US and Canadian fatalities in 1998 to 4% in 2004. Triggers were identified in 34 cases including 9 insufficient gas and 13 equipment problems. HA were identified in 29 cases including 10 emergency ascents, 7 insufficient gas, and 6 inappropriate gas. DEs were identified in 26 cases including 13 hypoxia, 7 air embolism, and 3 seizures. There was insufficient information to evaluate equipment failure or procedural errors in 42 cases. RDA failures were identified in 9 cases and RDA procedural errors in 21 cases. There were 6 non-RDA equipment failures and 10 non-RDA procedural errors. (Multiple failures or errors occurred in some cases.) CONCLUSIONS: In RDA fatalities, insufficient gas and emergency ascent appeared less common than in open-circuit fatalities (1), but equipment problems and inappropriate gas appeared more common for RDA. For RDA cases, RDA failures and procedural errors were more common than non-RDA failures and errors, but more than half the RDA cases had too little information for assessment. 1) Denoble PJ. Application of the Pareto principle to recreational diving deaths. 2007 UHMS Meeting. (NOTE: see also: http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/6997)
Description: Abstract of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc. Annual Scientific Meeting held June 14-16, 2007. Ritz-Carlton Kapalua Maui, Hawaii (http:www.uhms.org)
URI: http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/5179
Date: 2007

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  • UHMS Meeting Abstracts
    This is a collection of the published abstracts from the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) annual meetings.

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